Symptoms And Signs Of Atopic Dermatitis
17 Tháng 05
Posted by:  Heebee Vietnam

Symptoms And Signs Of Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis primarily affects children in urban areas or high-income countries, and its prevalence has increased over the past 30 years; up to 20% of children and 10% of adults in high-income countries are affected. Most individuals with this disorder develop it before the age of 5, many before the age of 1. However, atopic dermatitis can even begin later in adulthood. The unproven hygiene hypothesis suggests that reduced exposure to early childhood pathogens (due to cleaner household environments) may increase the development of atopic and autoimmune diseases involving self-proteins.

What is Atopic Dermatitis?

Atopic dermatitis (Eczema) (Atopic eczema; Infantile eczema; Neurodermatitis; Endogenous eczema) - According to Thomas M. Ruenger, MD, PhD, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis involving genetic susceptibility, immune and epidermal dysfunction, and environmental factors. Itching is the main symptom; skin lesions range from mild erythema to severe lichenification (skin thickening) to erythroderma. Diagnosis is based on history and examination.

Treatment includes:

- Counseling on appropriate skincare

- Avoiding irritants

- Topical corticosteroids and immunosuppressants

- Itch control and secondary infection prevention are also crucial

- Severe cases may require systemic immunosuppressive treatment

- Atopic dermatitis in children often resolves or significantly diminishes in adulthood

Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis typically appears in infants, as early as 3 months old. In the acute phase, the skin is irritated, with lesions forming red, thick, scaly patches that are intensely itchy and can be scratched. In the chronic phase, scratching and rubbing cause dry, lichenified lesions on the skin, leading to mild to moderate roughness.

The distribution of lesions depends on age. In infants, characteristic lesions occur on the face, scalp, neck, eyelids, and extensor surfaces of the limbs. In older children and adults, lesions appear on the flexor surfaces such as the neck, elbows, and knees.

Intense itching is a major characteristic

Itching usually precedes the lesions and worsens with dry air, sweating, local irritation, wool clothing, and emotional stress.

Common environmental triggers include:

- Excessive bathing or washing

- Strong soaps containing chemical foaming agents

- Staphylococcus aureus residing and acting on the skin

- Sweat

- Wearing rough and wool clothing

Complications of Atopic Dermatitis:

Secondary infections (viral infections), especially staphylococcal and streptococcal infections (e.g., impetigo, cellulitis), are common. Erythroderma (redness covering more than 70% of the body surface area) is rare but can occur with severe atopic dermatitis.

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